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'Chirurgie; cours d'operations de Chirurgie', book by Pierre Dionis, Paris, France, 1714

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In 1671, King Louis XIV (1638-1715) established the post of demonstrator in operative surgery at the Jardin Royal in Paris and appointed Pierre Dionis (1643?-1718) to conduct the course. Dionis then published this textbook, based on the coursework, in 1707. This example is a second edition from 1714. The work contains illustrations of the instruments required for each operation and these pages show the instruments required for trephination.

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    Glossary: book

    A written or printed work consisting of pages glued or sewn together along one side and bound in covers. Usually continuous printing or writing.

    Glossary: trephine

    An instrument for trepanning, being an historical advancement on the trepan. It is a circular or cylindrical saw, with a handle like that of a gimlet, and a little sharp perforator called the center pin.

    Glossary: trephination

    The removal of a circular piece of the top of the head. This is done using a sharp implement or circular saw, and was common in Neolithic times. It is thought that the aim was to release evil demons or spirits from the body in the hope this would cure the person of their illness.