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Kiil kidney dialysis apparatus, England, 1980-1982

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In 1961, Norwegian Frederik Kiil introduced a kidney dialysis machine small enough to be used at home. Called the ‘sandwich’, the machine had eight cellophane membranes to filter patients’ blood. Larger areas of membranes meant better filtration of the blood. (The first kidney machine actually used sausage skins as membranes.) Patients had to dismantle and sterilise the machine at home.

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    Glossary: kidney dialysis machine

    A machine used to artificially replicate the function of the kidneys.