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'The Physician', print, Europe, 1763

A physician is studying the urine of patient in a technique called uroscopy. The urine was studied by looking at its colour, thickness, and even taste. The appearance of bodily fluids gave clues about the patient’s balance of humours and could give the physician ideas on how to treat them. The engraving was taken from a Dutch painting by either Hendrik Heerschop (1620/1621-1672) or Caspar Netscher (1639-1684). The engraver was Jacob Folkema (1692-1767), a Dutch artist working in Berlin, Germany in 1763.

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Glossary: uroscopy

The diagnosis of diseases by visual inspection of urine for blood or pus etc. It dates back to ancient Egypt, India and Babylon. It is considered limited in modern western medical practice, as it can lead to incorrect diagnosis.

Glossary: print

Pictorial works produced by transferring images by means of a matrix such as a plate, block, or screen, using any of various printing processes. When emphasizing the individual printed image, use "impressions." Avoid the controversial expression "original prints," except in reference to discussions of the expression's use. If prints are neither "reproductive prints" nor "popular prints," use just "prints."

Glossary: engraving

A technique to obtain prints from an engraved surface. Engraving is the practice of cutting into a hard, usually flat surface.