Site display: Normal | Text Only

My Collection | About Us | Teachers

Find objects

Select from more than one or two options below:

Objects search

Can't find what you're looking for? Try the search below.

Models of hygienic sanitary appliances, England, 1895

  • Thumbnail1
  • Thumbnail2
  • Thumbnail3
  • Thumbnail4
  • Thumbnail5
  • Thumbnail6
  • Thumbnail7
  • Thumbnail8
  • Thumbnail9
  • Thumbnail10
  • Thumbnail11
  • Thumbnail12
  • Thumbnail13
  • Thumbnail14
  • Click the thumbnails to enlarge

It’s 1895 and Charles Campbell, a member of the Sanitary Institute, has designed and arranged this cabinet for lectures on hygiene and sanitary science – but who is attending such talks? Sanitary Inspectors employed to check and report on the state of hygiene in their neighbourhood are the most likely audience. It was an essential part of their training, in preparation for examinations held by the Sanitary Institute and other public health associations. Women gained the sanitary officer’s certificate as often as men. In the mid-1890s, Hilda Martindale attended lectures at the Sanitary Institute, passed the examination, and went on to study public health and hygiene at Bedford College, London. What were her career prospects? She worked as a factory inspector for more than thirty years, becoming Deputy Chief Inspector in 1925. It’s possible Hilda Martindale was taught using this or a similar cabinet, so what’s inside? It has three layers of miniature water supply and sewerage fittings, sanitary appliances such as toilets and wash basins, and equipment relating to the ventilation of buildings. Best practice could be demonstrated, but the cabinet also contains items showing incorrect or defective fittings posing a hazard to health. Similar exhibits were found in the Parkes Museum, founded in 1876 as a memorial to military hygiene reformer Edmund Alexander Parkes. What was its role? It aimed to educate and inform the general householder and building tradespeople, complementing the work of the Sanitary Institute (with which it merged in 1888) to raise standards of public health.

Object number:


Related Themes and Topics

Related Objects

There are 707 related objects. View all related objects



Glossary: hygiene

The science of health and how to maintain it. A condition or practice which promotes good health. The definition varies widely and differs across cultures.

Glossary: model - representation

Use for a scaled representation of an object or structure, usually three-dimensional. The item is often idealised or modified to make it conceptually easier to understand.

Glossary: sewerage pipe

No description.

Glossary: hygiene model

No description.