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  • vaccination

    The introduction of vaccine into the body for the purpose of inducing immunity. Coined originally to apply to the injection of smallpox vaccine, the term has come to mean any immunising procedure in which vaccine is injected.

  • vaccination dressing

    Dressing used to protect any vesicles which appear after vaccination.

  • vaccine

    A substance given to humans or animals to improve immunity from disease. A vaccine can sometimes contain a small amount of bacteria that is designed to stimulate the body's reaction to that particular disease. The first vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner to prevent smallpox.

  • vacuum brake ejector

    A steam powered appliance for exhausting air from the train pipe, and maintaining a partial vacuum.

  • vaginal speculum

    Instrument for dilating the vagina, and throwing light within thus facilitating examination or surgical operations

  • Valentin knife

    used to cut slices of organs for microscopic examination

  • valve

    A structure that restricts the flow of fluid to one direction only. Valves are found within veins in the human body where they prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction.

  • valve gear

    The apparatus for controlling the valves that admit steam in and out of the cylinders of a steam locomotive.

  • valvulotome

    An instrument for sectioning a valve

  • vanitas

    A type of still-life painting in which the objects are reminders of mortality. These often include hourglasses, scales, mirrors or skulls. Popular in Dutch painting in the 1600s.

  • vaporizer

    A device that turns substances into vapour or gas, especially for medicinal inhalation. The term also refers to an aid for people who are quitting smoking. (It allows them to mimic the act of smoking while reducing the harmful by-products that might otherwise be inhaled.)

  • varicose veins

    Swollen veins that are usually blue or purple in colour.

  • varnish brush

    A brush used to apply varnish, made in flat or oval shapes and in a variety of differnt sizes.

  • varnish cup

    A device which allows the user to pour out a small amount of varnish at a time, thus preventing the exposure of the large supply. It also allows the user to strain the varnish often and so remove the grit which the varnish brush is bound to pick up on the surface

  • vases

    Vessels of varying shape and size but which are usually taller than they are wide and which are often cylindrical. Used mainly to hold flowers or for ornamental purposes.

  • vector

    A vector is the intermediary – the ‘middle-man’ – between the disease-causing organism and the disease sufferer. In the case of malaria, the mosquito that carries the parasite that causes the disease is the vector.

  • vehicles

    Use broadly for devices or contrivances by which people or objects are conveyed or carried.


    Locomotives, rolling stock and their component parts. Some tools and equipment carried on rolling stock are allocated to other classes. Headcode discs, headlamps, tail lamps, etc. are included in the Control and communications class, even when they are built into the vehicle (e.g. permanently wired electric head and tail lamps) although a cross-reference heading is provided within the Vehicles and vehicle components class (<fixed head and tail lamps>).

  • vein

    Blood vessel that returns blood to the heart from around the body.

  • velocipede

    A series of human-powered vehicles created in the Victorian age, that eventually was named the tricycle. There were designs with two, three and four wheels. Some two-wheeled designs had pedals mounted on the front wheel, while three- and four-wheeled designs used treadles and levers to drive the rear wheels. Later two-wheel versions had increasingly large front wheels, directly driven by bicycle pedals, and a smaller back wheel—these leading to the penny farthing. This invention was made by Walter Hunt

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