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  • sack barrow

    A two wheel barrow for conveying sacks, luggage and similar materials across the platform.

  • saddle tank locomotive

    A tank locomotive with water tank curved over the top of the boiler.

  • safe sex kit

    Set of items and information leaflets designed to encourage safe sex. Would include condoms and guide to their application as well as other information.

  • safety pin

    Pins for fastening separate articles, as garments, bent back on itself so as to form a spring, and with a guard or sheath to cover the point and prevent accidental unfastening.

  • safety rattle

    An audible device in which a wooden baton strikes against a ratchet when swung round. Used by lookouts as an alarm to warn track workers of the approach of a train.

  • safety valve

    A valve allowing excess pressure to escape from the locomotive boiler.

  • sailing ship

    Ship equipped with sails as its primary means of propulsion

  • sailing vessel

    Watercraft equipped with sails

  • salamander

    A type of amphibian found worldwide, except in Australia and the polar regions. It has an elongated body, a long tail and short legs.

  • salivette

    A trademarked device for saliva sampling.

  • salmonella

    A bacteria that inhabits the intestines of animals and humans, causing infection.

  • saloon

    A railway passenger carriage with an open internal layout.

  • Salvarsan kit

    Also known as Arsphenamine or 606, Salvarsan is a synthetic form of arsenic that is used to treat syphilis.

  • salver

    Flat, dishlike serving vessels, sometimes having a high stem, used for a variety of purposes, especially presentation of food or drink.

  • sample

    Individual units, segments, or small quantities taken as evidence of the quality or character of the entire group or lot

  • samples

    Individual units, segments, or small quantities taken as evidence of the quality or character of the entire group or lot. W.

  • sand wagon

    A wagon used for the conveyance of sand.

  • sand-glass

    Device to measure equal periods of time by the motion of sand or other free-flowing, fine-grained substances through a narrow aperture between two triangular or conical glass bulbs arranged mouth to mouth; probably introduced in the early 14th century and used then especially for timekeeping on board ships. Hour-glass or minute-glass are specific examples.

  • sanding block

    A block used to hold sandpaper, usually made of wood or cork.

  • sanitary reform

    Reforms designed to improve working and living conditions. In the 1800s these were particularly targeted at the working class population.

  • sarcophagus

    A stone coffin, most notably used by the ancient Egyptians and Romans.

  • sarsaparilla

    a preparation of the dried rhizomes of various plants, especially smilax, used to flavour some drinks and medicines and formerly as a tonic.

  • satire

    An artistic form where human actions and errors are mocked.

  • sauce boat

    Boat-shaped vessels, usually with a long pouring lip at one end and a handle at the other or two pouring lips and a central handle, used for serving sauces, gravies, or the like.

  • saucer

    Small plates, generally 3 to 4 inches in diameter, used to hold a cup.

  • saw

    Cutting tools having thin, flat metal blades, bands, or stiff plates with cutting teeth along the edges.

  • scales - weighing device

    Instruments for determining the weight of objects or substances.

  • scales (rules)

    Rules with proportioned graduations for measuring or making scale drawings.

  • scalpel

    A small thin sharp blade used by surgeons.

  • scanning tunnelling microscope

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a non-optical microscope that scans an electrical probe over a surface to be imaged to detect a weak electric current flowing between the tip and the surface

  • scarification

    The process of making a series of cuts or scratches in the skin to allow a substance to enter the body.

  • scarificator

    A surgical instrument with several spring-operated lancets, used to break the skin.

  • scarlet fever

    An acute contagious disease caused by streptococcus bacteria occurring predominantly among children and characterized by a scarlet skin eruption and high fever.

  • scarlet fever test

    trial term S&H

  • schizophrenia

    A mental disorder that has symptoms of delusions, hallucinations and a loss of a sense of self and relationship to the external world that lasts over a long period of time (more than six months).

  • schooner

    Refers to a fore-and-aft-rigged sailing vessel with two or more masts, especially those with only two masts in which the aftermast is taller than the foremast; for two-masted sailing vessels in which the aftermast is the shorter one, see "ketches (fore-and-aft-rigged vessels)" or "yawls (sailing vessels)."

  • sciatica

    Syndrome characterised by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and into the lower extremity the term is also used to refer to pain anywhere along the course of the sciatic nerve (the hip region).

  • scissors

    Cutting tool consisting of two bevel-edged cutting blades with handles and being movable past one another on a pivot in the center by which they are held together.

  • sclera

    The white fibrous outer layer of the eyeball. It covers approximately the five sixths of its surface and continuous anteriorly with the cornea and posteriorly with the external sheath of the optic nerve.

  • Scold's bridle

    A punishment for women who spoke too much or were troublesome. Also referred to as 'the brank' or 'branks', it consisted of an iron cage that covered the head with a gag that projected into the mouth. This gag was often studded to heighten the punishment.

  • scoop

    A long handled spoon like instrument used for scraping parts of the body, or extracting foreign bodies.

  • score

    Original and entire drafts or transcripts of musical compositions or arrangements, with the parts of all the different instruments or voices written on staffs one above another, so that they can be read at a glance.

  • scraper

    Any of various tools used for scraping, producing a clean or a smooth finished surface, cutting grooves, or shaping objects by scraping away superfluous material.

  • screw die

    The die cuts a thread on a preformed cylindrical rod, which creates a male threaded piece which functions like a bolt

  • screwbarrel microscope

    A microscope that can be separated into many pieces and carried in a case.

  • screwdriver

    Hand tools with a handle and a shank with a tip shaped to fit the recess in the head of a screw; used to drive or remove screws.

  • screwjack

    A type of jack which is operated by turning a leadscrew.

  • scrofula

    A disease that leads to a swelling of the neck, and inflammations of the skin, bones and joints. It was once believed that the touch of a king could cure the disease, hence its alternative name: ‘King's Evil’.

  • scroll

    A roll, as of parchment or papyrus, used especially for writing a document.

  • scurvy

    Disease caused by a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which is contained in fresh fruit and vegetables. Symptoms include weakness, painful joints, and bleeding gums.

  • seal - artefact

    Refers to artefact bearing monograms, writing, numbers, symbols, or designs in intaglio that are used for making an impression in relief on some soft, tenacious substance such as clay or wax. They may be flat or cylindrical, the impression made by rolling the seal over the surface. The term also refers to the impressions that have been made in wax, clay, or another soft material by the impact of a seal or other hard engraved surface. Seals are generally used to authenticate documents or for decoration.

  • seal impression

    Thin adhesive disk of dried paste, gelatin, adhesive paper, isinglass or similar material with added coloring matter and typically bearing an identifying mark, used to seal letters or other documents or to attach papers.

  • sedan chair

    Portable chair consisting of canvas hung on two long poles. Sedan chairs were sometimes used to transport the sick.

  • sedative

    Drugs used for their calming effect, to reduce anxiety and tension. At high doses they cause sleep.

  • seismograph

    Any of various instruments for measuring and recording vibrations in the earth.

  • seizure

    A sudden attack caused by a disorder, in particular a convulsion.

  • selenium

    A nonmetallic element obtained chiefly as a by-product in copper refining. WCOL9.

  • self-winding watch

    Watch that winds itself through movement of the wearer turning rotors, tipping weighted levers, or opening and shutting the case, or by electric motors

  • semisynthetic

    a substance that is prepared synthetically but derives from a naturally occurring material

  • septicaemia

    Blood poisoning caused by the spread of bacteria from an infection.

  • sepulchral slab

    Stone slab used to mark the site of a grave

  • sepulchral vase

    Piece of sepulchral sculpture in the form of a vase form part of a tomb

  • serrenoeud

    An instrument for tightening a ligature

  • sewing machine - equipment

    Any of various type of machine for sewing material such as textile or leather, usually having needle and shuttle to carry thread and powered by treadle, waterpower, or electricity.

  • sextant

    Navigational instruments used for measuring angular distances, especially the altitude of celestial bodies, in order to determine the longitude and latitude of ships at sea. By use of two plane mirrors angles of up to120 degrees can be measured using a 60 degree divided scale

  • sexually transmitted infection

    Any disease transmitted by sexual intercourse. STIs include HIV/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhoea, some chlamydia infections and genital herpes.

  • shadow puppet

    Puppets devised to cast shadows on a white screen. Usually flat, often painted black or polychrome leather. Developed in China, Java and other east Asian countries.

  • share certificate

    Certificates of a corporation or joint stock company that a named person is owner of the designated number of shares of stock.

  • share list

    A list of closing share prices, published at the end of each working day.

  • shaving bowl

    Bowl used by barber or shaver,used either to collect blood from shaving cuts, or to rest razor during pauses in shaving.

  • sheep

    trial term

  • sheet music

    Music printed on unbound sheets of paper.

  • sheet music cover

    cover for sheet music

  • sherry glass

    Drinkware generally used for serving aromatic alcoholic beverages, such as sherry, port, aperitifs and liqueurs, and layered shooters. An ISO-standard sized sherry glass is 120 ml.

  • Shintoism

    The native religion of Japan. It involves the worship of spirits representing a place, a natural object or process, or the spirits of ancestors.

  • ships

    Use for watercraft generally larger and more seaworthy than boats; usually propelled by sails or engines.

  • shock absorbing wagon

    vehicle equipped with telescopic hydraulic buffers used for carrying sensitive loads.

  • shoe

    A durable covering for the human foot, made of leather or similar material with a rigid sole and heel, usually extending no higher than the ankle.

  • shop sign

    Use broadly for signs identifying places of business.

  • short-sightedness

    A defect of the eye where images are produced in front of the retina rather than on it. This causes object that are close to the viewer to appear blurred. Usually treated with glasses or corrective surgery.

  • shoulder flash

    something worn on the shoulder of a military uniform as an emblem of a division etc.

  • shovel

    Tools consisting of a broad blade or scoop attached to a long handle; used for taking up, removing, or throwing loose matter, such as earth, snow, or coal.

  • shrapnel

    Fragments of shells, bombs or bullets.

  • shrine

    Originally a container, usually made of precious materials, used especially for a relic and often a cult image. Today it has come to mean a holy or sacred place that is visited by believers.

  • shunters horn

    An small wind instrument used as an audible device by the railway shunter to warn of danger.

  • shunters truck

    A railway truck, normally coupled to shunting locomotives for the use of shunting staff, employing low running boards, grab handles and boxes for lamps, scotches and chocks, used extensively on the Great Western Railway.

  • shunting pole

    A pole fitted with a special hook used for manual coupling/uncoupling of loose-coupled vehicles from the lineside.

  • sick siphon

    Scroll shaped silver tube with a hook on one side to attach it to a cup of liquid. The lower end is closed by a hinged and pierced cover to strain the food.

  • Siddha

    A medical practice based mainly in Tamil Nadu, India, that uses the pulse as one of its main diagnostic tool and treatments based on metals.

  • side discharge hopper wagon

    A hopper wagon with bottom doors arranged so as to discharge the load to the side (e.g. to deposit ballast alongside the track).

  • side plate

    A small plate usually used for bread.

  • SIDS

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the unexpected death of an infant of less than two years old. The term is only applied to a death that remains unexplained after post-mortem investigation.

  • sight developing apparatus

    apparatus designed to aid or improve sight or sight deficiencies, such as glasses or monacle.

  • sight testing apparatus

    Apparatus used in tests on sight

  • sign

    An entity that signifies another entity. Often a publicly displayed board giving information

  • sign - promotional or advertising artefact

    Lettered notice or other display that bear names, directions, warnings, advertisements, or symbols that are displayed or posted for public view. For smaller, less public identifying notices, use "labels (identifying artifacts)." For systems of signs arranged to communicate directions or essential information, use "signage."

  • signage

    Use for systems of posted signs arranged to communicate directions or essential information.

  • signal box

    A building housing equipment for operation of points and signals in a particular area or section of a route.

  • signal box nameboard

    A board attached to a signalbox showing the identification and location of the box.

  • signal finial

    An ornate embellishment to protect the open top of signal post.

  • silhouette

    Portraits and images on a contrasting background. Portraits are made from cut paper. Images showing no detail.

  • silicone implant

    An implant that is inserted into the body by surgery, typically to enhance a particular area (commonly breasts). Silicon is a synthetic material that remains unaltered by changes in temperature and is resistant to chemical attack.

  • silkworm

    Moth caterpillar that feeds chiefly on mulberry leaves. The common domesticated Bombyx mori is raised commercially for its silk cocoon

  • simple theodolite

    An early form of the theodolite for measuring only horizontal angles. Consists of full circular scale with movable alidade sight from which measurement is made. It is also fitted with a compass for orientation and fixed sights.

  • single eyeglass - quizzing

    Eyeglasses consisting of a single lens in frame with long handle, but without nosepiece, used to compensate for defective vision in one eye. Handle usually fitted with ring for carrying ribbon or cord.

  • single lens reflex camera

    A camera of 35mm or medium format in which a system of mirrors shows the user the image precisely as the lens renders it.

  • skeleton

    The bones or bony framework of an animal body considered as a whole; also, more generally, the harder (supporting or covering) constituent part of an animal organism.

  • sketch

    Rough or summary art works; less finished than studies. Though sketches are often in the drawing medium, the term 'drawing' in general implies more finished works than does 'sketch'.

  • skewer

    Pinlike utensil of wood or metal for fastening meat in a specific form while cooking. Also, similar but longer utensil used to pierce and hold food while cooking, as over a grill, or dipping in sauces, as fondue. Use "spits" for pointed rod for holding large pieces of meat and other food while cooking.

  • skin boat

    Watercraft constructed by stretching a flexible, waterproof membrane, such as skin or gut, over a light framework, typically of wood; some versions use cloth, which is waterproofed with an applied substance, such as pitch.

  • skin grafting

    A process to move skin from one part of the body to another. Usually carried out as treatment for burns or other extensive skin wounds.

  • skull

    The skeleton of the head of a vertebrate animal, including the brain case, or cranium, and the bones and cartilages of the face and mouth. The skull can be subdivided into two parts: the cranium and the mandible. The human skull is made up from 22 bones.

  • skull saw

    A saw used to cut through the skull. This was often used in preperation for brain surgery.

  • skyphos

    drinking cup

  • slab

    A broad, flat, thick piece of pottery or metal

  • sledgehammer

    Large heavy hammer that is usually wielded with both hands and used especially for driving stakes and breaking stone.

  • sleeping car

    A railway carriage equipped with beds and other facilities to enable passengers to sleep throughout their journey.

  • sleeping sickness

    A serious disease that is common in much of tropical Africa, transmitted by tsetse flies. Symptoms include fever, headache, lethargy, confusion, tremors, and loss of weight.

  • slide

    Positive transparencies in mounts suitable for projection, usually 35mm film in a mount of 2 by 2 inches.

  • slide projector

    An opto-mechanical device to view photographic slides.

  • slide rule

    Simple mechanical device used for calculations such as multiplication and division.

  • slinger

    A chain and harness device used for unloading objects

  • smallpox

    Smallpox is an infectious virus unique to humans. It results in a characteristic skin rash and fluid-filled blisters. After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 1800s and 1900s, the World Health Organisation certified the eradication of smallpox in 1979. Smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been completely wiped out.

  • smelling salts

    Used to arouse consciousness. The salts release a small amount of ammonia, which triggers the nasal passage's inhalation reflex.

  • smoke tube

    One of the horizontal pipes carrying smoke and burning gases from the firebox to the smokebox, heating the boiler water which surrounds them and thus producing the steam.

  • smoking

    A practice where a substance, most commonly tobacco is burned and the smoke inhaled. It is currently practiced by over one billion people worldwide (2008)

  • Snellen test types

    Chart used for vision testing. The chart shows lines of black letters varying in size from large to small down the chart. Which a patient is asked to read. The optician is able to tell the level of the patient's eyesight when s/he can not read any further.

  • snow plough (vehicle)

    A special vehicle propelled by one or more locomotives to remove snow from the railway.

  • snuff

    Tobacco that has been finely powdered. Snuff is usually sniffed through the nose, or applied to the gums with a finger.

  • snuff box

    a small usually ornamental container for holding snuff Boxes, usually having a hinged lid and small enough to be carried in the pocket, used for holding snuff

  • snuff jar

    a box or jar used for holding snuff, usually small enough to be carried in the pocket.

  • sofa

    A long upholstered seat typically with a back and arms.

  • software

    Computer system program, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of data processing systems, and which require hardware for use to be made of them. For individual collections or sequences of code provided by a user to perform a particular task, use 'programs'. For programs that serve a particular purpose and that may be packaged and sold by a manufacturer use 'applications'.


    A method used to detect objects underwater by sending high frequency sound waves and monitoring their reflection.

  • song

    Musical compositions, generally short, containing words. Colloquially, the term song has come to be applied to any short compositions with or without words. This is considered incorrect in the genres of jazz, brass band, classical and popular music.

  • sorting tender

    A railway vehicle designed for the carriage of mail and providing facilities for sorting whilst in transit.

  • sound-level meter

    Instrument designed to measure noise and sound levels, usually consisting of microphone, amplifier, output meter, and frequency-weighting apparatus.

  • soup plate

    Plates intended primarily for serving an individual portion of soup, having a shallow well and usually a wide rim.

  • soup spoon

    Spoons with circular or oval bowls, used to consume soup and similar foods, especially when served from soup plates. For similar but smaller spoons with a rounded bowl and used to consume bouillon or clear soup, use "bouillon spoons."

  • soup tureen

    Large, covered tureens intended primarily for serving soup. Generally rests on a spreading foot or on three or four short legs, and is sometimes accompanied by a stand.

  • spa

    A resort with mineral springs which are thought to have properties that help cure or soothe illnesses.

  • space probes

    Unmanned spacecraft designed for nonorbital missions, such as flights to other planets or into deep space; for unmanned spacecraft designed for orbital missions, use "artificial satellites."

  • spacecraft

    Use for manned or unmanned vehicles designed to be placed in orbit about the earth or into a trajectory toward another celestial body. NASATH.

  • spade

    A long handled digging tool with rectangular metal blade.

  • spandrel

    The triangular space between the outer curve of an arch and the rectangle formed by the mouldings enclosing it, frequently filled in with ornamental work. In railway usage often refers to the ornate ironwork forming the spandrels of station canopy supports.

  • spanner

    Hand tools consisting of a handle and a jaw at one end; used to turn or hold a bolt, nut, pipe, or fitting. The jaw may be shaped for a specific-sized object or may be adjustable.

  • specific fever

    Produced by a peculiar poison, or an exclusive or specific cause, and the fever runs, or strongly tends to run, to a definite course which can be used to identify the fever; an example is yellow fever

  • specifications

    Detailed and exact statements of particulars, especially statements prescribing materials, dimensions, and workmanship for something to be built, installed, or manufactured. AHD.

  • specimen

    Individual sample or unit that is deliberately selected for examination, display, or study, and is usually chosen as typical of its kind.

  • specimen container

    Container used to transport specimens from patients to the laboratory, often a urine sample.

  • spectacle case

    case for spectacles

  • spectacle frame

    framework part of spectacles, devices to compensate for defective vision or to protect the eyes from light, dust, and the like, consisting usually of two lenses set in a frame that includes a nosepiece for resting on the bridge of the nose and which may also have two sidepieces extending over or around the ears.

  • spectacles

    Pair of eyeglasses to compensate for defective vision or to protect the eyes from light, dust, and the like. Kept in place by sidepieces passing over the ears, on the nose or held in the hand.

  • spectrophotometer

    Type of photometer that measures the intensity of infrared, visible or ultraviolet light against colour or specifically against wavelength. They are furtyer classified by the the measurement techniques used, how the spectrum is produced & the range of source intensity they can measure.

  • spectrophotometer - ultraviolet

    Type of photometer that measures the intensity of ultraviolet light against colour or specifically against wavelength. They are furtyer classified by the the measurement techniques used, how the spectrum is produced & the range of source intensity they can measure.

  • spectrophotometer - visible light

    Type of photometer that measures the intensity of light against colour or specifically against wavelength. They are classified by the wavelength of operation, the measurement techniques used, how the spectrum is produced & the range of source intensity they can measure.

  • spectroscope

    Optical instrument that disperses visible light into a spectrum using prisms or gratings, which can be observed and analysed. Used mainly in astronomy and chemistry, variants include spectrographs that record spectra & spectrometers that have scale for direct wavelength measurement

  • spectroscope component

    Any component part of a spectroscope or spectrograph, includes optical components and mechanical parts.

  • spectroscopy

    Branch of optics dealing with the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of a spectrum.

  • speculum

    Instrument for dilating certain passages of the body, and throwing light within them, thus facilitating examination or surgical operations; Types incluse ear, nasal, vaginal, anal or rectal

  • speculum mirror

    optical mirror for reflectingtelescope, (sometimes used in other optical instruments ) made from speculum metal a bronze alloy containg arsenic for greater reflectivity. Later displaced by metal coated (silver & aluminium) glass mirrors.

  • speed recorder

    An instrument giving a continuous record of vehicle speed, usually on a paper roll.

  • speedometer

    An instrument giving a continuous indication of vehicle speed.

  • sphygmograph

    An instrument used to measure the pulse. It records the strength and rate of a person's pulse. Records are recorded on graph paper.

  • sphygmomanometer

    An instrument used by medical staff to measure blood pressure. Usually made up of a cuff which is placed around the arm of a patient, and a measuring unit that shows the patient's blood pressure.

  • sphymograph

    an instrument which records the strength and rate of a person's pulse. The machine records its results on graph paper.

  • spike tensioner

    A tool designed to drive a spike automatically to its correct tension

  • spill holder

    trial term

  • spina bifida

    A defect in which a newborn baby has part of the spinal cord, and its coverings, exposed through a gap in the backbone.

  • spinal column

    The series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.

  • spirit bubble

    A bubble of air trapped within an enclosed tube filled with liquid. When the tube is placed on top of surface and the bubble is lined up in the middle, the surface is level.

  • spirit lamp

    A lamp, used in laboratory work, which burns alcohol as fuel.

  • spirit level

    A glass tube almost filled with liquid, but leaving a small bubble to act as an index. The inside of the tube is ground to a definite curvature according to the desired sensitivity. The tube is suitably mounted to indicate level.

  • spirit sticks

    Dense and combustible wood or materials that were ignited because they emitted a lot of smoke. Native North Americans used these to repel mosquitoes or other insects, this was sometimes even done inside a tent.

  • spirometer

    An apparatus for measuring the amount of air that the lungs take in and breathe out.

  • spitting

    The act of ejecting saliva from the mouth.

  • spittoon

    Large containers serving as places to spit. Associated with chewing tobacco.

  • spleen

    A term for a mental illness caused by too much black bile (one of the four humours) in the body. Used from Greek medicine until the 1700s. Those experiencing spleen had restlessness, anxiety, solitude, sudden fits of anger and laughing or crying without reason to.

  • splint

    A rigid device of plastic, wood or plaster that serves to immobilize or support an injury. Generally strapped alongside an injured limb.

  • spontaneous generation

    The supposed production of living organisms from non-living matter, a common belief until the 1800s.

  • spoon

    A utensil consiting of an oval or round end-piece (bowl) and a handle for conveying food, especially liquid, to the mouth, or employed in the culinary preparation of this.

  • spout - container component

    Tubular protruberance through which the contents of a vessel may be poured or sometimes drunk.

  • spray gun

    Implements used for spraying paint or other substances over large areas.

  • spring - bogie side control

    A special spring designed to help the locomotive follow the bogie round a curve.

  • spring balance

    Balance in which the weight of the sample or the exertion of a force is balanced and thus measured by the extension of a spring.

  • sputum

    Material coughed up from the chest and throat. Its characteristics (colour, texture, etc.) often provide important information affecting the diagnosis of respiratory disease.

  • sputum bottle

    used to safely dispose sputum and spit from tuberculosis patients

  • staff

    A stick carried in the hand as an aid in walking or climbing. Usually broader or longer than a walking stick.

  • staining

    A technique in which cells or thin sections of biological tissue are placed in coloured dyes (stains) to make them visible through a microscope. Staining heightens the contrast between transparent cell or tissue components.

  • staining apparatus

    used to stain blood film preparations

  • stamp

    Instruments for stamping, such as dies or tools for impressing or marking a design or pattern on metal, paper, or other soft or absorbent material.

  • stand - support furniture

    Small often tablelike pieces of furniture used for holding or displaying objects.

  • State Registered Nurse

    A State Registered Nurse (SRN) is a person who practises nursing and who has been trained to a level that meets the standards of the Nursing and Midwifery Council in the UK.

  • station bell

    A bell used on railway stations to warn station staff and passengers that a train was due to arrive at a station.

  • station bench

    A long seat provided at a railway station for the use of passengers.A seat provided for travellers within the station.

  • station gate

    A gate giving access to any part of a station.

  • station handbell

    A bell that has a handle enabling it to be held in the hand for ringing, used on station platforms for making station announcement.

  • station lamp

    A lamp provided for the illumination of a railway station.

  • station name sign

    A sign on a station platform denoting the name of the station.

  • station seat

    A seat provided at a railway station for the use of passengers.

  • station sign

    Any information sign or warning notice situated on a station.

  • stationery

    Paper for writing letters, often having a letterhead or decorative design, and often accompanied by matching envelopes.

  • statistics

    The collecting and classifying of numerical data.

  • statue

    A sculpture in the round representing human or animal figures or small figure groups; a statuette is a smaller sculpture.

  • steam crane

    Steam crane is a crane powered by a steam engine. It can be both mobile and immobile and run on different type of tracks. It usually has a vertical boiler placed at the back so that the weight of the boiler counterbalances the weight of the jib and load. They were very common as railway breakdown cranes

  • steam engine - engine

    Engine driven or worked by steam.

  • steam locomotive

    A self-propelled vehicle powered by steam.

  • steam locomotive indicator

    An instrument for measuring the instantaneous steam pressure in a locomotive cylinder during operation.

  • steam locomotives

    Use for locomotives powered by onboard internally fired boilers through which hot exhaust gases flow from a firebox in the rear to a smokebox and stack at the front and in which high-pressure steam expands within cylinders to drive two pistons; often having coal or water tenders coupled behind.

  • steamship

    Ship propelled by steam engines

  • steamships

    Ships propelled by steam engines.

  • steatopygia

    Steatopygia, from the Greek steato meaning fat and pygia meaning buttocks, is defined as excessive fat of the buttocks, usually seen in women and sometimes called Hottentot Bustle because it was commonly seen in the Hottentot people of southern Africa. This affliction is characterized by protrusion and excessive fatness of just the buttock region.

  • steelyard

    Scales having a fixed fulcrum and a movable counterweight whose distance along a horizontal graduated beam is moved to balance an object suspended from a point, usually on a pan or hook, set off-center; for scales of similar form but with a fixed counterweight and movable fulcrum, use "bismar & desemers."

  • stelae

    Upright stone slabs, plain or decorated, used as commemorative markers.

  • stem-cell research

    Stem cells are cells that can develop into specialised cells and have a unlimited number of times it can divide. Stem cells in an embryo are capable of developing into the cells and thus organs and tissues a health adult requires. The use and research into stem cells is controversial.

  • stencil

    A template used to draw or paint identical letters, symbols, shapes, or patterns

  • stenosis

    Narrowing of a duct or canal

  • stereo camera

    A type of camera with two or more lenses which allows the camera to simulate human binocular vision, and therefore gives it the ability to capture 3-D images.

  • stereo-comparator

    Special form of stereoscope that allow differences between similar photographs. Used in photogrammetry to determine height difference by parallax effect of off-set images

  • stereoscope

    Viewers in which pairs of stereoscopic images are mounted and appear as a single, three-dimensional image when viewed. Use for objects designed to view individual stereo cards, usually photographic prints. For the devices used to view wheels of mounted transparencies, marketed as a children's toy from the mid-20th century, use "stereoviewers."

  • stereoscopic photograph

    Refers to double pictures of the same scene that produce the effect of three dimensionality when viewed through a stereoscope. They were first envisioned in 1832 by the English physicist Charles Wheatstone, who described this as a uniquely photographic art form, since a draftsman could not draw two scenes in exact perspective from viewpoints separated only 2 1/2 inches, which is the normal distance between human eyes necessary for the three-dimensional effect. Wheatstone's mirror stereoscope was not practical for use with photographs, and the invention was not popular until the 1850s, when Sir David Brewster, a Scottish scientist, designed a simpler viewing instrument. The introduction of the collodion process, which simplified exposure and printing techniques, allowed three-dimensional photographs to become a popular craze. They may be daguerreotypes, negatives, or other forms of photographs. For images in the form of photographic prints on cards, use the more specific term "stereographs."

  • stereotaxic apparatus

    Apparatus for a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on during brain surgery.

  • sterilisation

    Surgical procedures that make a person infertile i.e. unable to have children.

  • steriliser

    An instrument used to make objects sterile by killing or eliminating agents such as fungi, bacteria and viruses.

  • stertor

    A noisy inspiration occurring in coma or deep sleep, sometimes due to obstruction of the larynx or upper airways.

  • stethometer

    An apparatus for measuring the external movements of a given point of the chest wall, during respiration; also called thoracometer.

  • stethoscope

    A device which is used to listen to sounds produced by the human body. Ordinarily a stethoscope consists of rubber tubing in the shape of a Y.

  • sticker

    Adhesive-backed slips of paper or similar thin material, usually bearing messages or designs.

  • stigmata

    Bodily marks or sores believed to correspond to the crucifixion marks of Jesus Christ.

  • stomach

    J-shaped organ, lying to the left and slightly below the diaphragm in human beings; one of the organs of the digestive system. The stomach produces gastric juices that break down proteins.

  • stomach pump

    An apparatus for removing the contents of the stomach by means of suction. A stomach pumping is performed using a flexible rubber tube that is passed through the mouth and advanced to the stomach. This procedure includes the instillation of a balanced salt solution into the stomach (via the tube) followed by suctioning the fluid out of the stomach. It is an effective procedure in the treatment of toxic ingestions.

  • stone

    A hard solid made of undissolved minerals and found in the kidneys or bladder.

  • stop-watch

    Timepiece, with one or more sweephands that can be started and stopped at will, used for precise measurement of elapsed time. To refer to timepiece that tells the time of day in addition to these functions, use "chronograph."

  • storage jar

    A jar used to store objects or substances.

  • stores van

    A railway vehicle dedicated to the carriage of railway stores between central works and depots and outstations, minor repair facilities, etc.

  • straight edge

    A draughtsman's instrument for ensuring that straight lines are drawn.

  • strainer - culinary tool

    Utensil or device used to retain or hold back solid pieces or particles while a liquid passes through. For bowl-shaped or conical device with perforated or pierced wall used to drain or strain foods use "colander."

  • streptococcus

    A group of bacteria that destroy red blood cells and cause diseases in humans, including scarlet fever.

  • strigil

    A metal or ivory instrument used to scrape skin. Used in ancient Greece and Rome to scrape the skin clear of dirt.

  • stromuhr

    An instrument for measuring the quantity of blood that flows through a blood vessel in a given time.

  • strophanthus

    A name for a group of shrubs from central Africa. One variation of strophanthus is used in a drug to stimulate the heart after heart failure.

  • strychnine

    A naturally occurring drug derived from trees. In small doses strychnine functions as a central nervous system stimulant, but in higher doses it is extremely poisonous.

  • stylophone

    Miniature stylus-operated synthesizer invented in 1967 by Brian Jarvis. It consists of a metal keyboard played by touching it with a stylus — each note being connected to a voltage-controlled oscillator via a different-value resistor - thus closing a circuit.

  • sub miniature camera

    An unusually small camera using film that is smaller than normal. The best known subminiature formats are -- Minox (8x11 mm), Kodak disc (8x11 mm), 16 mm (10x14 mm), Super 16 mm (12x17 mm), 110 film (13x17 mm), Tessina (14x21 mm) and half-frame (18x24 mm).

  • sublimation apparatus

    A piece of laboratory apparatus where a compound to be sublimed is placed and a cooler section above this where the purified material will collect. Typically, the compound is heated and collected on a chilled piece called a cold finger. Usually, but not always, the sublimation is performed under reduced pressure.

  • submarine

    Vessel capable of continuous, extended underwater voyages under their own power without surfacing; often naval combatant vessels. For vessels capable of complete submersion for only limited amounts of time and which may or may not move under their own power, use "submersibles."

  • suffrage

    The right to vote and own property

  • sugar bowl

    Bowls of varying form intended primarily for holding and serving sugar; made as an individual piece, to match a creamer, or as part of a tea or coffee service.

  • sugar tongs

    Tongs, usually silver, with claw-shaped or spoon-shaped ends for serving lumps of sugar. W.

  • sulfa drug

    A group of antibiotics. Sulfa drugs were ‘wonder-drugs’ before penicillin and other antibiotics. They were used to treat diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia.

  • sulphanilamide

    A form of sulphonamide used in the treatment of various bacterial infections.

  • sulphonamides

    Antibacterial drugs used to treat diseases like bronchitis and pneumonia, derived from sulphanilamide

  • sundial

    Instrument that indicate approximate time of day from a shadow cast by a gnomon in sunlight onto a graduated surface

  • sun-glasses

    Eyeglasses, usually spectacles, with coloured or tinted lenses that protect the eyes from the glare of sunlight.

  • supercoiling

    A form of DNA where the double helix is twisted further around itself. This generally occurs in nature to allow the DNA to condense into living cells.

  • superheater

    A device for raising the temperature of steam once generated in order to increase the expansion of the steam after it has left the boiler and before it reaches the steam chests.

  • superheater header

    The connection box mounted in the smokebox next to the tube plate containing the incoming saturated steam and the tubes for superheating the steam.

  • suppository

    A drug that is inserted into the rectum, vagina or urethra, where it dissolves.

  • suramin

    a nonmetallic drug that may be used in the treatment of sleeping sickness

  • surface plate

    A solid, flat plate used as the main horizontal reference plane for precision inspection, marking out (layout), and tooling setup. The surface plate is often used as the baseline for all measurements to the workpiece.

  • surfboat

    Lifesaving boat designed for launching and beaching through the surf, and generally double-ended, with marked sheer, high ends, an outboard rudder, and sometimes a sailing rig; early models were rowed, later ones had auxiliary power.

  • surgery

    trial term S&H

  • surgical bobbin

    used in abdominal surgery

  • surgical instrument set

    Set of instruments to be used for surgery. A physician would often build up their own collection of favoured tools in order to feel as comfortable as possible when carrying out surgery.

  • surgical saw

    Cutting tools having thin, flat metal blades, bands, or stiff plates with cutting teeth along the edges used in surgery and for procedures such as trephination.

  • surveying chain

    Type of measuring device consisting metal chains of a known exact length. Used in surveying for lineal measurement of land area. Usually of 100 links equal to 66 Imperial Feet

  • surveying level

    An instrument consisting of a telescope mounted so that it can be readily placed in a truly horizontal position and used with a levelling staff to obtain small differences of level in surveying.

  • surveying quadrant

    A surveying instrument usually mounted on a tripod for measuring horizontal angles using a quadrant scale with fixed and movable alidate sights.

  • surveyors rods

    Folding rods, usually wood or metal, used by surveyors for measuring lengths in restricted areas, or for when working single handed.

  • suture

    The closing of a wound or incision with thread to help the healing process.

  • suture needle

    needle used to suture (join the edges of a wound or incision by stitching)

  • suturing machine

    Machine used to suture wounds

  • sword

    Edged weapon consisting basically of a blade, generally longer than that of dagger or knife, and a grip; designed for delivering cutting or thrusting blows or both.

  • sympiesometer

    An instrument for measuring the weight of the atmosphere by the compression of a colomn of gas (usually hydrogen). The basic idea is similar to the common weather glass that had been in use for some time, but the use of highly compressible hydrogen in a long, thin tube allowed much more accurate measurements, as changes in pressure resulted in much more movement of the liquid. The basic concept was initially demonstrated by Robert Hooke, which he referred to as the otheometer. However it remained unused until it was re-introduced by Alexander Adie.

  • symptom

    A physical or mental feature which is regarded as indicating a condition of disease

  • synthesizer

    Electronic instruments made in a wide variety of models differing considerably in size, appearance, and manner of operation, though generally their output must pass through external amplifiers and loudspeakers to produce sound.

  • synthetic

    A substance that has been made artificially, i.e. one that does not come from a natural source. Nylon is an example of a synthetic fibre.

  • synthetic rubber

    Polymeric material that will return to approximately its original length after stretching. Used as substitute for natural rubber

  • syphilis

    A sexually transmitted infection resulting in the formation of lesions throughout the body.

  • syringe

    An instrument used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. The open end of the syringe may be fitted with a hypodermic needle for injection into the bloodstream.

  • syrup

    A thick sticky liquid

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